1940-1959 (26,635 killed by nationwide polio epidemic)
1941 The US
enters WWII, ends 1945
Foundation established by psychiatrist Karl Augustus Menninger
(1893-198?). A nonprofit organization dedicated to the furtherance
of psychiatric research in Topeka, KS.
from the Therapeutic Section begins
1942 Karl Menninger
"Love Against Hate" chapter 7 about play
Recreation Society, "recreation worker"
publishes "Principles and Practice of Rehabilitation"
Congressional action, the Red Cross Gray Ladies are cooperating
with the Army Medical Corps by providing diversional occupations
and recreation to wounded soldiers in Army Hospitals
from the Therapeutic Section column
"Great nationwide stress is also being placed on rehabilitation
of the grossly crippled and handicapped, so that they may be
mobilized for constructive service in meeting the manpower shortages
in industry and civilian duty, service which is essential to
keep our armies in the field." Rehabilitation of war casualties
and maximum mobilization of manpower.
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 6 JUL. 1943 (PL 190)
funds physical and vocational restoration, amendment to Vocational
Rehabilitation Act of 1920 (PL113) "remunerative
1945 VA Recreation
Service established. The objectives are: "to assist the
doctor in getting his patients well, and to make life as satisfying
and meaningful as possible for those patients who must remain
in the hospital."
in nursing homes
increase in the U.S. birthrate following WWII called the "Baby
Boom". 76 Million people are born accounting for nearly
one-third of the U.S. population in 1980. The resulting uneven
age distribution has had a multitude of social effects on educational
systems, job markets, urban and suburban economies and so on,
including almost every aspect of contemporary life.
Physical and Mental Rehabilitation" APMR
1947 AOTA assumes
responsibility of publication of its own organ, The American
Journal of Occupational Therapy (current)
Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation continued publishing
Recreation Society, Hospital Recreation Section
Recreation Association founded
194? APA forms
Leisure Time Committee
1950 Korean War, ends
and Licht "Occupational Therapy Principles and Practice"
ch: 12 Recreational Therapy authored by Davis; Defines RT as:
"any free, voluntary and expressive activity; motor, sensory
or mental, vitalized by an expansive play spirit, sustained
by deep rooted pleasurable attitudes and evoked by wholesome
emotional release; prescribed by medical authority as an adjuvant
Springfield College; M.S. PE & Rec. in Rehabilitation
U of MN; M.S. Hospital Recreation (taught at med school)
Columbia U; PE & Rec. in Rehabilitation
1950 The National
Association for Music Therapy is founded
v22 p13+ N '51 "We Prescribe Recreation"
Goetz Gillian (Ed.) "Music Therapy"
1951 VA "Recreation
Service" VA Manual M6-4
writes book "Clinical Applications of Recreational Therapy"
1952 The Department
of Physical Medicine, Graclyn Hospital, Winston Salem, N.C.
offers the first 12 month Recreational Therapy internships.
Eugene Phillips announces the creation of the Recreational Therapy
Section of the American Association of Health, Physical Education,
and Recreation, a branch of the National Education Association.
The RTS replaces the Institutional half of the Industrial and
Association of Recreational Therapists (NART) is established
Feb. 1953, their official publication is the "Inter-State
1953 The Council
for the Advancement of Hospital Recreation (CAHR) is formed
in Feb. 1953 at a meeting held at NEA offices, and was attended
by two representatives each of:
('48) American Recreation Society, Hospital Section (2 representatives)(Annabelle
('52) AAHPER's Recreational Therapy Section (2) (Jack Anderson)
('53) National Association of Recreational Therapists (2)
('53) National Recreation Association's Hospital Consultant
(originally 1, later 2)
State College offers B.A. in Recreational Therapy
San Francisco State College develops a Hospital Recreation program
New York University starts a Hospital Recreation Graduate program
1954 U of MN
offers Hospital Recreation correspondence course
1954 The Revised
1954 Standards for Psychiatric Hospitals and Clinics, published
by the APA, describes Activity Therapy as on of the professional
services in the mental hospital, and further indicates that
it "may be divided into occupational therapy and recreation."
1955 The first
educational film on the therapeutic value of recreation for
patients (hospital recreation) in the non-government hospitals
"Rx for Recreation" (originally So Much for So Little)
is a 28 minute color film produced by the NRA. The script was
written by Beatrice Hill and Robert Wald, and was directed by
Robert Wald, who produced the radio/TV series "American
Inventory." The film premiered at the American Hospital
Association convention the week of Sep. 20th, and again at the
37th National Recreation Congress.
1955 CAHR publishes
the first hospital recreation personnel standards, separating
registration into three sections: Hospital Recreation Director,
Hospital Recreation Leader, and Hospital Recreation Aide.
1956 A critical
shortage of physical therapists seriously impedes the national
rehabilitation program. Over 5,800 jobs for qualified physical
therapists are available throughout the US.
1956 The Veterans'
Administration begins their Student Affiliate Recreation Trainee
Eugene Phillips becomes CAHR's first registered Hospital Recreation
Director at their Mar. 18, 1957 meeting in Chicago.
1957 SUNY Cortland
offers a master's degree in Hospital Recreation
San Jose Starts a Hospital Recreation program, and is affiliated
with the Palo Alto VA.
Texas Women's University offers Recreational Therapy bachelor's
1958 U of Iowa
offers undergraduate and graduate specialization in Hospital
1958 NRA Hospital
Recreation Consultant becomes Consulting Service on Recreation
for the Ill and The Handicapped
Hill hosts the 5th Regional Institute on Hospital Recreation.
The theme was "Expanding Horizons".
Hill resigns after seven years as director of the NRA Consulting
Service on Recreation for the Ill and the Handicapped to establish
Comeback, Inc. Comeback, Inc. implements methods developed by
the Homebound Recreation Demonstration Project, which was funded
by the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation and conducted by
the NRA. Comeback, Inc. is dedicated to serving the social rehabilitation
needs of the ill and handicapped.
1965 The US sends
troops to Vietnam, withdraws 1973
Medicare (Health Insurance for the aged) is added to Social
Security benefits, and Medicare starts regulating nursing homes.
1966 The NRA
and ARS merge into the National Recreation and Parks Association
Sunday, October 9, 1966, the NRPA Board of Trustees in session
at the Washington-Hilton Hotel, Washington, D.C., approved the
Charter and Bylaws of the National Therapeutic Recreation Society
and accepted NTRS as a professional branch of NRPA. NTRS takes
over the administration of the credentialing program from CAHR.
President's Panel on Mental Retardation
of Public Law 90--170, which results in training grants and
research for therapeutic recreation
196? PL 90-480
Architectural Barriers Act, tax incentives for barrier removal
of Bureau of Education for Handicapped in Office of Education
Special Olympics (Olympics for Retarded)
1967 On January
28, 1967, Hilton Motor Inn, Kansas City, Missouri, the first
official meeting of the NTRS Board of Directors was held, and
Ira J. Hutchinson was elected president...During the April mid-year
meeting, President Hutchinson requested the board accept his
resignation as president, so he could accept the NRPA position
of "Consultant on Therapeutic Recreation." He also
became NTRS Executive Secretary on a part-time basis...First
publication of the Therapeutic Recreation Journal.
1969 David C. Park was appointed NRPA Therapeutic Recreation
Specialist and NTRS Executive Secretary...The first Registration
Board was convened under NTRS.
1971 Dr. Paul
Haun, "Recreation: A Medical Viewpoint"
of "NTRS Standards for Psychiatric Facilities," which
were later incorporated into the JCAHO Accreditation Manual
for Psychiatric Facilities...NTRS State Section Advisory Council
1972 Draft of the first NTRS Code of Ethics was completed...Legislative
Action Committee was developed...Competencies for therapeutic
recreation specialists were developed.
1973 PL 93-113
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504
1974 PL 94-142
Education for All Handicapped
1974 NTRS Newsletter
1975 NTRS Field
Placement Guidelines were completed...NTRS 750-Hour Training
Program was completed...After David Parks resignation,
Yvonne A. Washington assumed the duties of NTRS Branch Liaison.
1975 Utah Recreation Therapy Licensure Rule goes in effect http://www.rules.utah.gov/publicat/code/r156/r156-40.htm
2006 North Carolina Recreational Therapy Licensure Rule goes in effect http://www.ncbrtl.org
1976 A committee was established to develop a philosophical position
statement on therapeutic recreation.
House conference on Handicapped
1977 NTRS Presidential
Commission on Assessment of Critical Issues was established.
of Occupational Titles 076.124-014 RECREATIONAL THERAPIST:
Plans, organizes, and directs medically approved recreation
program for patients in
hospitals and other institutions: Directs and organizes such
activities as adapted sports,
dramatics, social activities, and arts and crafts, regulating
content of program in
accordance with patients' capabilities, needs, and interest.
Prepares reports for patient's
physician or treatment team, describing patients' reactions,
and symptoms indicative of
progress or regression.
Standards for TR in psychiatric facilities
197? NTRS 750-hour
1978 NTRS Registration
Program was recognized by NRPA as the sole registering body
for therapeutic recreation personnel.
for Community-Based Recreation Programs for Special Populations,
Standards of Practice for Therapeutic Recreation Services, and
Guidelines for Administration of Therapeutic Recreation Service
in Clinical and Residential Facilities were developed by NTRS.
1980 NTRS conducted
a national survey on the status of recreation as a related service
in PL 94-142.
Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification (NCTRC), formerly
NTRS Board of Registration, became a completely autonomous credentialing
body, administratively and financially independent from NRPA/NTRS...NTRS
published Quality Assurance: Concerns for Therapeutic Recreation
and Guidelines for Third-Party Reimbursement...Philosophical
Position Statement on Therapeutic Recreation was accepted and
endorsed by the membership and the Board of Directors of NTRS...Model
Practice Act was developed by NTRS to assist states in addressing
licensure...CARF incorporated therapeutic recreation services
into their Standards Manual.
by the United Nations as the International Year of Disabled
Designated by the United Nations as the International Year of
killed by AIDS)
1982 NTRS Philosophical
1984 NTRS established
National Therapeutic Recreation Week.
1984 The American
Therapeutic Recreation Association (ATRA)
1985 NTRS developed
a Strategic Planat least 85 percent of the objectives
1987 NTRS published
Philosophy of Therapeutic Recreation...NTRS developed a Marketing
Committee...NTRS representative invited to attend the JCAHO
PTAC meeting for the first time...Policies and Procedures Manual
was revised, approved and disseminated to the NTRS Board of
Directors...NTRS Regional Directors began to represent their
region on NRPA Regional Councils.
1988 The first NTRS Board Retreat was held in Denton, Texas...The
following topic areas were discussed: marketing, communications/publications,
public policy, professional standards, and the NTRS committee
structure. A work plan was developed to address issues within
the topic areas...NTRS unveiled its new "logo" at
the NRPA Congress.
job analysis establishes a unique and coherent body of knowledge
attempts to remove activity therapy opportunities in nursing
of wellness centers
of private TR consultant firms
198? IDEA amendments
Americans Act Reauthorization
Americans Personal Welfare Education Training Act
and ETS (Educational Testing Service) administer first certification
1990 Revised Standards for Internship in Therapeutic Recreation published...NTRS
revised Guidelines for the Administration of Therapeutic Recreation
Service was published...After Yvonne Washingtons resignation,
Rikki S. Epstein assumed the duties of NTRS Program Manager...A
revised Code of Ethics was adopted.
of Careers and Vocational Guidance, volumes 1 & 2.
Volume 2, page 577: As a form of medical treatment: "Recreational
therapists plan, organize, and direct medically approved recreation
programs for patients in hospitals and other institutions."
Volume 1, page 417: In the recreation and park service: "Therapeutic
recreation staff: The development of classes, sites, and opportunities
in recreation for the mentally and physically disabled is a
relatively new area in research and development."
of Occupational Titles 076.124-014 RECREATIONAL THERAPIST: alternate
title: therapeutic recreation worker:
"Plans, organizes, and
directs medically approved recreation program for patients in
hospitals and other institutions: Directs and organizes such
activities as sports, dramatics, games, and arts and crafts
to assist patients to develop interpersonal relationships, to
socialize effectively, and to develop confidence needed to participate
in group activities. Regulates content of program in accordance
with patients' capabilities, needs and interests. Instructs
patients in relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, concentration,
and other activities, to reduce stress and tension. Instructs
patients in calisthenics, stretching and limbering exercises,
and individual and group sports. Counsels and encourages patients
to develop leisure activities. Organizes and coordinates special
outings and accompanies patients on outings, such as ball games,
sightseeing, or picnics to make patients aware of available
recreational resources. Prepares progress charts and periodic
reports for medical staff and other members of treatment team,
reflecting patients' reactions and evidence of progress or regression.
May supervise and conduct in-service training of other staff
members, review their assessments and program goals, and consult
with them on selected cases. May train groups of volunteers
and students in techniques of recreation therapy. May serve
as consultant to employers, educational institutions, and community
health programs. May prepare and submit requisition for needed
1991 NTRS initiated
a move to enhance the therapeutic recreation profession by establishing
Ad Hoc Committees with NCTRC and ATRA...A proposed alternate
certification plan was developed by NTRS...The NTRS 750-Hour
Training Program for Therapeutic Recreation Assistant was revised.
1992 UT Title
58 Recreational Therapy Practice Act, licensure
became an Associate Member of CARF and joined the JCAHO Coalition
of Rehabilitation Therapy Organizations. Revised Preparing for
a Career in Therapeutic Recreation... NTRS developed promotional
kits to assist agencies in celebrating National Therapeutic
Recreation Week, a national observance sponsored by NTRS.
1993 NTRS adopted
a comprehensive Strategic Plan to guide the organization's work...A
definition of therapeutic recreation was developed...An NTRS
Vision Statement was approved...The NTRS Board approved the
Research Proposal Guidelines and Criteria developed by the Research
Committee, thereby establishing a program to provide partial
funding of research projects which investigate the efficacy
of therapeutic recreation services.
1994 NTRS approved
Interpretive Guidelines for the Code of Ethics...Promoting Therapeutic
RecreationA Marketing Guide was published...NTRS and NRPA
held the first annual National Therapeutic Recreation Professional
Development Forum...NTRS focused grassroots advocacy efforts
on the need for comprehensive health care reform...NTRS established
an Ad Hoc Committee on International Affairs...NTRS completed
"Therapeutic Recreation Practitioner Analysis Study."
Carolina University is the first institution of higher education
to offer B.S. in Recreational Therapy, offering a clinical perspective
of recreation, rather than just a therapeutic bent to a recreation
degree. WCU defines recreational therapy as the prescribed use
of recreational and other activities as
treatment interventions to improve the functional living competence
of persons with
physical, mental, emotional and/or social disadvantages.
1995 NTRS established
the NTRS Fred Humphrey Internship Program...NTRS revised Standards
of Practice for Therapeutic Recreation Services was published...Impacting
Public Policy: An Advocacy Manual for Therapeutic Recreation
and Manual for Recreation Therapy in Long-Term Care Facilities
1996 CA Assembly
Bill 2853-Recreation Therapy title legislation.
NTRS became a National Organization Patron of the 1996 Atlanta
Paralympic Games...NTRS revised its Philosophical Position Statement...APRS
and NTRS formed a joint committee on community recreation for
people with disabilities...Understanding Financing and Reimbursement
Issues was published...Philosophy of Therapeutic Recreation:
Ideas and Issues, Volume II was published...Preparing for a
Career in Therapeutic Recreation was updated...NRPA/NTRS established
a Home Page on the Internet...Joint Task Force on Credentialing
established by NTRS and ATRA...NTRS invited by the American
Medical Association to include its information on "Preparing
for a Career in Therapeutic Recreation" in the AMAs
1997-1998 edition of Allied Health and Rehabilitation Professions
1997 Revised NTRS Internship
Standards and Guidelines for Therapeutic Recreation were published...NTRS
invited to participate in the Health Care Financing Administrations
(HCFA) Sharing Innovations in Quality Initiative...First NTRS
Edith Ball Scholarship was presented...Revised NTRS Strategic
Plan was approved...Position Statement on Inclusion adopted
by NTRS...NTRS represented on CARF National Advisory Committee.
1998 NTRS was invited to
submit written testimony to the Institute of Medicines
Committee on Improving Quality in Long Term Care...Revised Manual
for Recreation Therapy in Long Term Care and Preparing for a
Career in Therapeutic Recreation published...NTRS approved Standards
of Practice for Paraprofessinals in Therapeutic Recreation...NTRS
and ATRA approved a Resolution and Letter of Agreement to Communicate,
Cooperate and Collaborate...NTRS established new committees
and task forces in the areas of technology, assistive technology,
benefits training, adventure based programming, and therapeutic
recreation in the schools...NTRS developed its own website...Consumer
At-Large Director position was approved for the NTRS Board of
1999 NTRS met with the Health
Care Financing Administration (HCFA) regarding therapeutic recreation
in long term care...NTRS and VSA arts entered into a partnership
to collaborate on projects...Joint Task Force on Long Term Care
established by NTRS and ATRA...NTRS Resolution on Inclusion
was approved by the NRPA National Forum...NTRS received $17,000
in special funds from NRPA for the "Therapeutic RecreationThe
Benefits are Endless..." project.
2000 NTRS developed the
"Therapeutic Recreation--The Benefits are Endless..."
training program and materials...Higher Education Work Group
established by NTRS and ATRA...NRPA adopts the NTRS Position
Statement on Inclusion as an NRPA policy...Revised NTRS Vision
Statement was approved...NTRS developed a videotape highlighting
the benefits of therapeutic recreation.
2001 State Recognition Options
in Therapeutic Recreation: An Educational Resource was published
by NTRS and ATRA...NTRS joined the Alliance for Disability Recreation
and Sport...Best of Adventure Recreation was published...Joint
Task Force on Higher Education was established by NTRS and ATRA.
2003 Nicki Booth was the first person to receive the Edith Ball Scholarship outisde of North America that was also studying therapeutic recreation in a foriegn country.
2005 NTRS testified in formal IDEA hearings across the country.
2006 NTRS celebrated its 40th Anniversary.