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Therapeutic Recreation Protocol Sample: Gunn & Peterson's format


Caving

Purpose:

To provide opportunities for testing personal limits; improving self-confidence and self-esteem; developing leadership and cooperative skills; and learning basic caving techniques.

Program Objectives:

TPO 1. To demonstrate knowledge of caving techniques

  • EO 1. To demonstrate knowledge of caving safety issues
  • EO 2. To demonstrate ability to spot climbers & communicate hazards and suggestions
  • EO 3. To demonstrate ability to climb, scramble and walk within the cavern in a safe manner.
  • EO 4. To demonstrate awareness of environmental issues

TPO 2. To demonstrate ability to test one's capabilities and limits

  • EO 1. To demonstrate an awareness of the concept of self-esteem
  • EO 2. To demonstrate an awareness of the concept of risk-taking
  • EO 3. To demonstrate an awareness of one's capabilities and limitations
  • EO 4. To demonstrate ability to utilize positive self-talk to overcome perceived barriers
  • EO 5. To demonstrate ability to utilize quieting response to overcome barriers

TPO 3. To demonstrate ability to cooperate with others

  • EO 1. To demonstrate the ability to listen
  • EO 2. To demonstrate the ability to communicate ideas and feelings
  • EO 3. To demonstrate the ability to provide and receive positive feedback to others
  • EO 4. To demonstrate the ability to follow and to give orders

IMPLEMENTATION DESCRIPTION

Population

This program is designed for a group of 4 to 10 adolescents with emotional, psychiatric, conduct, or chemical dependency problems.

Clients must obtain their physician's permission to participate and be of good physical health due to the physically demanding nature of this activity. Clients must have good balance and comply immediately to orders during the caving expedition. Clients with hyperactivity, uncontrolled seizure disorders, and severe and profound mental retardation will not be permitted to participate... however, caving expeditions with higher degrees of safety and lower degrees of real risk can be programmed for these individuals. Clients with physical limitations can be incorporated into the program with modifications based on their individual needs.

Program Length and Duration

This program is designed with 3 preparatory sessions, each lasting one hour; and one caving expedition lasting 6 to 8 hours. The preparatory sessions are scheduled the week leading to the caving expedition.

Program Context

This program can be implemented in any agency serving the described population. Thus, the program could be used with inpatient, outpatient, or partial-hospitalization clients. It could be used within clinical or community based settings.

Staff

Two professional staff members are needed for every 8 clients. The number of staff may be increased depending upon type and dysfunction's of clients. One staff member must have a knowledge of safe caving techniques and ability to lead groups in high risk adventures. Furthermore, the staff member must have a knowledge of the psychiatric and emotional conditions of the participating clients, the ability to utilize intervention and behavioral-management techniques, the ability to help each individual discover personal perceived limitations and to help the client overcome their limitations, and the ability to assist clients to stop negative thinking and to develop positive self-talk. The staff must also be thoroughly familiar with the caverns to be explored.

Facility

A quiet room, free of distractions for group discussions and movement during the preparatory sessions. A relatively safe cavern appropriate for beginners and yet, has multiple challenges to test individuals.

Equipment and Supplies

  • Hard hats or helmets with chin straps for each participant
  • Flashlight preferably with wrist straps for each participant
  • Extra-life batteries for each flashlight for each participant
  • Additional flashlights and batteries to be carried as spares
  • At least one backpack to carry spare flashlights, food, etc.
  • Water Canteen
  • Tissue papers
  • Trash bags
  • Food, trail mixes recommended
  • Clothing... will depend upon cave temperature and amount of water
  • Shoes or boots... must be of non-slip type... preferably water-proofed
  • Gloves... optional
  • Climbing Gear... will depend upon type of climbs in cave... not suggested for beginning cave explorations
  • First Aid Kit
  • Map... contact US Department of Geological Survey
  • Permission slips and releases... from parents and from participants... from physicians... from owners of the cavern
  • Vehicle to transport participants
  • Lunch, drinks, and/or cash to purchase meals
  • Description of each participants limitations, medications, problems
  • Handouts(presented in the appendix)
  • Whistle

Objectives and Performance Measures

PROGRAM: Caving

TERMINAL PROGRAM OBJECTIVE:

TPO 1. To demonstrate knowledge of caving techniques

ENABLING OBJECTIVE PERFORMANCE MEASURE
1. To demonstrate knowledge of safety issues in caving. 1. Upon request, the client will demonstrate knowledge of safe caving techniques by discussing each of the issues listed below:
  • a. list the rules of caving
  • b. identify dangers of caving
  • c. identify necessary equipment, supplies and clothing
  • d. state importance of teamwork as related to safety as judged correct by the therapeutic recreation specialist.
2. To demonstrate ability to spot climbers and to communicate hazards and/or suggestions. 2. Upon request, the client will demonstrate spotting techniques by assuming the correct stance and maintaining concentration upon the climber; and will demonstrate ability to communicate hazards or suggestion by speaking clearly and in a command voice, as judged appropriate by the therapeutic recreation specialist.
3. To demonstrate ability to climb, scramble and walk within the cavern in a safe manner. 3. Upon request, the client will demonstrate ability:
  • a. to climb by utilizing climbing technique as taught
  • b. to scramble by utilizing scrambling technique as taught
  • c. to walk by utilizing walking technique as taught, as judged correct by the therapeutic recreation specialist.
4. To demonstrate an awareness of environmental issues. 4. Upon request, the client will demonstrate an awareness of environmental issues by stating one's personal commitment to conservation and preservation of nature and reasons why conservation is necessary, judged adequate by the therapeutic recreation specialist.

TPO 2. To demonstrate ability to test one's capabilities and limits

ENABLING OBJECTIVES PERFORMANCE MEASURE
1. To demonstrate an awareness of the concept of self-esteem. 1. Upon request, client will demonstrate the concept of self-esteem by stating the correct definition of self-esteem and by stating the importance of self-esteem as judged appropriate by the therapeutic recreation specialist.
2. To demonstrate an awareness of the concept of risk-taking. 2. Upon request, the client will demonstrate an awareness of the concept of risk by:
  • a. identifying various types of risks
  • b. discussing personal benefits of risk taking and change
  • c. discussing dangers of physical risks
  • d. identifying the difference between real risk and perceived risk,

as judged appropriate by the therapeutic recreation specialist.

3. To demonstrate an awareness of one's capabilities and limitations. 3. Upon request, the client will demonstrate an awareness of his or her capabilities and limitations by sharing with the group his or her strengths and weaknesses, as judged adequate by the therapeutic recreation specialist.
4. To demonstrate knowledge of the concept of positive self-talk to overcome personal barriers. 4. Upon request, the client will demonstrate the knowledge of positive self-talk by by showing how he or she might use positive self-talk in stress situations by:
  • a. saying "stop" to him/herself whenever negative thoughts appear
  • b. saying positive words to replace negative thoughts,

as judged by the therapeutic recreation specialist.

5. To demonstrate ability to utilize quieting response to help overcome perceived barriers and fears. 5. Upon request, the client will demonstrate the ability to utilize the 6-Second Quieting Response to help overcome anxieties, feelings of stress and fears by:
  • a. saying "think and clear mind" to him/herself
  • b. smiling inwardly
  • c. deep breathing

(client can verbally state the steps to the TRS), as judged correct by the therapeutic recreation specialist.

TPO 3. To demonstrate the ability to cooperate with others in both leadership and following situations

ENABLING OBJECTIVES PERFORMANCE MEASURES
1. To demonstrate the ability to listen. 1. While engaging in a group exercise, client will demonstrate the ability to listen by:
  • a. maintaining eye contact with the speaker
  • b. maintaining appropriate body position with the speaker
  • c. not interrupting the speaker
  • d. asking appropriate questions to the speaker

as judged by the therapeutic recreation specialist.

2. To demonstrate the ability to communicate ideas and feelings. 2. While engaging in a group exercise, client will demonstrate the ability to communicate ideas and feelings by:
  • a. sharing ideas and thoughts
  • b. sharing personal feelings,
  • as judged by the therapeutic recreation specialist.
3. To demonstrate the ability to provide and receive positive feedback to & from others. 3. During and following the caving expedition, the client will demonstrate the ability to provide and receive positive feedback to & from others by:
  • a. pointing out positive behaviors and actions of others
  • b. accepting feedback from others

as judged by the therapeutic recreation specialist

4. To demonstrate the ability to follow rules and to give orders. 4. While participating in a caving expedition, the client will demonstrate the ability to follow rules and to give orders by:
  • a. attending to safety rules
  • b. complying to orders given by group leaders
  • c. providing safety instructions and orders when in leadership role,

as judged by the therapeutic recreation specialist.

5. To demonstrate the ability to provide and receive positive feedback to others. 5. During and following the caving expedition, the client will demonstrate the ability to provide and receive positive feedback to others by:
  • a. pointing out positive behaviors and actions of others
  • b. accepting feedback from others,

as judged by the therapeutic recreation specialist.


Content and Process Description

TPO No: 1 KNOWLEDGE OF CAVING. EQUIPMENT: copies of handout "CAVE EXPLORING FUNDAMENTALS"

EO No: 1 To demonstrate knowledge of safety issues in caving.

CONTENT PROCESS  
1. Basic rules of caving:
  • a. never go alone, 4 is minimum.
  • b. take 3 sources of light & extra batteries
  • c. go with an experienced caver
  • d. leave word with someone
  • e. wear hard hats, non-slick shoes
  • f. take special climbing equipment when vertical spelunking
  • g. don't drink alcohol or take drugs prior & during the trip
Provide participants handout on safety and dangers of caving. Review rules and discuss reasons for the various rules. It is extremely important that safety is stressed.
2. Identify dangers of caving:
  • a. getting stuck is a possibility
  • b. hypothermia- combination of water and cold can kill
  • c. flooding
  • d. fears can lead to injury
  • e. falls and slips
  • f. bad air... lack of oxygen
  • g. fire...bat droppings can ignite
  • h. old ladders and ropes in caves are unsafe
  • i. mines are extremely dangerous & should not be entered
  • j. getting lost(use map, look back to orient self,etc.)
-
3. Equipment needed for safety:
  • a. Helmets and non-slick shoes
  • b. Kneepads & gloves are suggested
  • c. special climbing ropes & equipment are necessary when vertical spelunking
  • d. Flashlights and good batteries & other sources of light
-
4. Teamwork is important to maintain safety. By working as a team, you will be safer... each one of you will be taking care of each other... with- out this help, you will be in greater danger.

Note: due to the length of this program plan, the entire caving program plan can be downloaded as a Word for Windows .doc file to your computer. (not available yet).


Sequence Sheet for Pre-Trip Sessions

TPO EO DESCRIPTION SESSION# TIME
- - Introduction to program. 1 -
- - 1. Build excitement for the activity. 1 5
- - 2. Discuss what participants can expect from the outing. Talk about recreational aspect first then therapeutic aspects and the goals to attain.

3. Announce format of the program:

  • a. three 1 hour discussion and activities to promote safety & group cooperation
  • b. participants are expected to attend each session and to participate actively
  • c. a 4 to 5 hour caving trip
  • d. lunch upon exit of cavern
  • e. a group discussion(debriefing) session following lunch
1 10
- - 4. Discuss equipment needed to be supplied by the clients. - 1
- - 5. Discuss need for parental and physician's permission 1 1
- - 6. Answer any other questions regarding format of program. 1 3
2 1 A. Spotting Exercise 1 10
3 1 B. Listening and Safety 1 5
1 1 C. Discussion on Safety
  • 1. Rules
  • 2. Dangers
  • 3. Equipment
  • 4. Cooperation
1 15
3 2 D. Sharing feelings and ideas 1 5
3 3 E. Giving positive feedback 1 5

3


4


A. Following orders and Commands


2


10

1&3 2&4 B. Blind Walk & discussion on communication 2 20
2 1 C. Discussion on Self-esteem and fears 2 10
2 2 D. Discussion on Risk-taking & challenges 2 10
1 2 E. Walking, Scrambling & Walking in a cave 2 20

2


4


A. Discussion on Positive Self-talk and imaging


3


10

2 3 B. Awareness of one's capabilities and limitations 3 5
2 5 C. 6-Second Quieting Response 3 10
1&2 - D. Review safety and personal challenge issues 3 20
1 4 E. Environmental Issues and challenge 3 10
- - F. Any questions, comments? 3 10

Sequence Sheet for Caving Expedition

TPO EO DESCRIPTION SESSION # TIME
    CAVING EXPEDITION 4 4-5 hrs
- - Gather materials and equipment required for trip

___ Flashlights ___ Helmets & strap ___ lunch

___ Extra Batteries ___ Candles & Matches ___ money

___ water/canteen ___ tissue paper ___ trash bags

___ non-slip shoes ___ appropriate clothing ___ gloves

___ first aid kit ___ map ___ whistle

___ permission slips ___ medication ___ info re: clients

___ phone #, map & list of cavers left with facility

4 -
- - Conduct pre-trip briefing to discuss leaders expectations, to go over individual goals, and to discuss expectations of cavers. 4 15
- - Upon arrival at caverns, remind participants to think SAFETY.... POSITIVELY.... COOPERATE. 4 2
- - Take lead. Place other leader in rear. Allow participants to choose their own line up as group goes in single file line. If participant is anxious, he/she should be near one of the leaders. 4 -
- - AT APPROPRIATE TIMES DURING THE EXPERIENCE, CONDUCT THE FOLLOWING EXERCISES: 4 -
2 5 A. Lights Out... listen to sounds... do 6-sec QR... conduct relaxation exercise of choice 4 10
2 5 B. Lights Out... listen to sounds... scream... listen to sounds again 4 5
1&2 2&3-5 C. Climb 6 foot wall 4 10
1&2 2&3-5 D. Climb 10 foot wall 4 10
1&3 2,3&4 E. Two Flashlight "Blind" Walk 4 25
3 4 F. "Lost", decision making exercise 4 25
3 4 G. Allow various individuals to take lead 4 10per
- - DEBRIEFING FOLLOWING THE TRIP - -
- - A. Discuss any of the following as determined most significant during the trip as judged by the leader:

1. Self-esteem

2. Risk taking

3. Challenges, capabilities and limits and how individuals overcame fears

(imaging, positive self-talk, relaxing, practice, etc.)

4. Cooperation and teamwork(listening, sharing, communicating, positive feedback, etc.)

5. Caving as a recreation activity

Lead each discussion into real life situations... how can participants generalize what they learned into real life?

4 30-60

SPECIAL NOTES TO THE LEADER OF THE CAVING EXPEDITION

1. Think safe and stress safety

2. Think group effort... allow group to make choices.

3. Slow group down if you feel they are moving at a fast pace. Pace the group. Know the length of the trip. Take breaks often.

4. Talk with each member of the group at various times. How are you doing? Doing OK? Tired? Having fun?

Take mental note of their responses... are they anxious, relaxed, exhausted?

5. Do not allow anyone to take risks... repeat safety rules or demonstrate techniques as necessary.

6. Encourage laughter and humor during breaks.

Caving protocol written by Charles Dixon

 

 

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