Recreational Therapy Archives
1954 JHPER: National Recreational
Therapy Section News
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(Editor: Bernath E. Phillips
Originally published in
the January 1954 JHPER, v25, issue 1, page 46...
A Significant Development
For some time leaders in
our field have been trying to better coordination and cooperation
between the various professional organizations concerned with hospital
recreation. Therefore, considerable significance must be attached
to the tentative formation of a Council for the Advancement of Hospital
Recreation at a meeting held at the National Education Association
offices in Washington, D. C., in November.
Attending this meeting were
two representatives each of the Hospital Section of the American Recreation
Society, the National Association of Recreational Therapists, AAHPER's
Recreational Therapy Section, and the National Office of the AAHPER.
The Council, subject to the approval of participating groups, would
consist of those attending the meeting, plus the Hospital Consultant
to the National Recreation Association.
The purpose of such a Council
would be to provide a structure enabling professional organizations
having members performing recreation functions in hospitals and institutions
to work cooperatively: (1) to raise standards, (2) to attack jointly
common problems, (3) to solicit financial aid, (4) to keep participating
groups informed of each other's activities, and (5) to explore the
feasibility of eventually amalgamating the several groups having members
performing recreation functions in hospitals.
The next Council meeting
has been set for February 3, at the NEA headquarters.
Hospital Recreation Institutes
In May and October 1948,
two two-week workshops in hospital recreation were conducted by the
Veterans Administration in cooperation with, and at, the New York
In May 1950, the University
of Minnesota, in cooperation with several agencies and professional
associations, conducted a six-day National Institute in Hospital Recreation.
In May 1953, the University of North Carolina conducted the three-day
Southern Regional Institute in Hospital Recreation.
Two institutes now being
planned promise to meet with the same enthusiastic response as have
these. The School of Education, New York University, and the National
Recreation Association are cosponsoring a Hospital Recreation Institute
at the University January 25-27. The University of Minnesota has called
a planning committee meeting for January 12 to finalize arrangements
for its second National Institute in Hospital Recreation, to be held
at the University's Center for Continuation Study, May 26-29.
The Purpose of Mental
The following are quotes
from Annual Report, 1952-53, of the Institute of Living in
Hartford, Conn. "A word should be said here regarding the idea
of private mental hospitals being 'country clubs' and 'resorts'...The
idea springs in part from the difference in treatment required in
mental disease, where nearly all of the patients are ambulatory and,
of course, need various kinds of recreation and social and athletic
therapy as ancillary treatment to the specific curative method indicated.
This is in contrast to treatment requirements in a general hospital,
where the stay is short and most of the patients are confined to bed.
In other part, the idea is evidence of reaction of people to a mystery.
There is nothing very mysterious about the mumps or a broken arm,
but there is something mysterious about mania and melancholia and
these illnesses still have moral implication in the minds of many...the
fact remains that the populace fears mental disease, fails to understand
it and hence is oblivious to the necessity of solving the problem
by education and research."
Graduate Education at
Fred M. Chapman, former
state supervisor of Patients Program Services with the Minnesota Department
of Public Welfare, was appointed in September 1953 as Assistant Professor
to teach the hospital recreation courses and advise students specializing
in this field at the University of Minnesota.
The graduate program leading
to the Master of Education degree in Hospital Recreation was inaugurated
at Minnesota in March 1950. Courses in descriptive psychiatry, medical
science orientation, and medical information, which are offered in
the School of Medicine, and an internship in a selected hospital,
are among the curriculum requirements.
Originally published in
the February 1954 JHPER, v25, issue 2, page 54...
JOURNAL References, 1951-53
For the information of those
concerned, listed below are the articles pertaining to Recreation
Therapy which have appeared in this Journal during 1951-53. Krumholz,
Henrietta, "Archery for the Handicapped." May 1951. Veterans Administration Recreation Service Staff, "Hospital
Recreation." May 1951. Rafuse, Janice, and Dorothy
A. Oates, "Rehabilitation of the Handicapped Child."
June 1951. Oliver General Hospital Staff, "We Prescribe
Recreation." November 1951. Chance, Marion, "Opening
Doors Through Dance." March 1952. AAHPER Committee on Adapted
Physical Education, "Guiding Principles for Adapted Physical
Education." April 1952. Phillips, B. E., "Hospital
Recreation is Unique." May 1952. Taylor, Wiley W., "Those
Who Can't See Need Physical Education Most." May 1952. Haun,
Paul, M. D., "Recreational Therapy." June 1952. Brown, Richard
L., "Swimming--Activity for the Handicapped." April 1953.
Taylor, Thomas William, "The Unseen Target." June 1953.
Berner, Leo, and Arthur Tauber, "Physical Education in Medical
Practice." November 1953. Jansen, Richard B., "Recreation
Helps Tuberculous Children." November 1953., "Recreational
Therapy." June 1952. Brown, Richard L., "Swimming--Activity
for the Handicapped." April 1953. Taylor, Thomas William,
"The Unseen Target." June 1953. Berner, Leo, and Arthur Tauber, "Physical Education in Medical Practice."
November 1953. Jansen, Richard B., "Recreation Helps Tuberculous
Children." November 1953.
In the fall of 1953, Beatrice
Hill joined the staff of the National Recreation Association as
a special consultant on initiating recreation programs in civilian
Howard A. Rusk, M. D.,
director, Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New York
University School of Medicine, and associate editor, New York Times,
has accepted an invitation to speak at the Recreation Division meeting
of the joint National AAHPER and Eastern District Convention at the
Hotel Statler, New York City, in April.
Dorothy Taaffe, reported
December 7, 1953, as Recreation Consultant on the National American
Red Cross headquarters staff in Washington, D. C., as the assistant
to Lillian Summers, National Recreation Consultant. Miss Taaffe formerly
was Recreation Supervisor, ANRC, U. S. Naval Hospital, St. Albans,
Long Island, N. Y.
Have Fun...Get Well
The American Heart Association,
44 E. 23rd St., New York 10, has published a 39-page booklet Have
Fun...Get Well. Although the booklet is directed primarily to
young people and to parents whose children are ill with rheumatic
fever or rheumatic heart disease, the specific suggestions contained
therein can be helpful to all parents and convalescents. Copies may
be obtained from the American or affiliated Heart Associations at
The State of Maryland Department
of Mental Hygiene conducted its Third Annual Rehabilitation Therapy
Aide Training Course at the Crownsville State Hospital, Oct. 9 to
Nov. 10, 1053. The therapies now constituting the rehabilitation program
are Occupational, Recreational, Music, Industrial, and Educational.
R. K. Barnes, Jr., is the department's Director of Rehabilitation.
Second Southern Regional
Harold D. Meyer has indicated
that the Second Southern Regional Conference on Hospital Recreation
will be held at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill the
first week in April 1955. The Second Southern Regional Conference
on Recreation for the Aging will be held at the U. of N. C., Chapel
Hill, April 4-7, 1954.
Originally published in
the March 1954 JHPER, v25, issue 3, page 62...
RT Section Meeting
Tentative plans for AAHPER's
Recreational Therapy Section Meeting to be held at the Hotel Statler
in New York City April 21 include reports on the formation of the
Council for the Advancement of Recreation in Hospitals, on plans for
evaluation of the existing section title, and on the activities and
plans of the Eastern District Section.
There will be panel discussions
on hospital programs according to type of patients, and a general
discussion on the conduct of hospital recreation, with special attention
being given to the use of administrative devices. Election of new
officers for the National and Eastern District Sections will take
place. This meeting will be held in conjunction with the joint meeting
of the AAHPER and its Eastern District.
On January 12 representatives
of the National American Red Cross, the Veterans Administration, and
the University of Minnesota met to finalize plans for the University's
Second Institute in Hospital Recreation. The institute will be held
at the University's Center for Continuation Study, May 26-29.
Recognized leaders in the
field will present papers and lead discussions on such topics as the
history of hospital recreation, recreation in medicine, the supervision
of professional and volunteer staff, management devices, and professional
preparation and support; the problems associated with the conduct
of recreation will be identified and analyzed by type of patient.
Those desiring to participate in the institute should write to Fred
M. Chapman, Assistant Professor, Division of Recreation Leadership,
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 14.
A Surgeon Speaks on Recreation
In the section on Medicine
of the January 18 issue of Time, famed Surgeon Sir Heneage
Ogilvie offers a solution to the high toll of modern stress, which
appears to contain sound philosophy upon which to base the conduct
of hospital recreation.
Quoting from Time:
"Said he: 'If we cannot relieve stress, we must break it somewhere
in the chain...Only leisure can rehabilitate the over-stressed mechanism
of the mind...But mere idleness is not the answer. The kind of leisure
men need in a machine-age civilization is rather some spare-time task
or occupation 'that makes some call on their intelligence and restores
their self-respect, transforming them once more from cogs in a machine
to men among men'."
The Recreation Program Service
of the National Recreation Association Defense Services has published
a 28-page Guide to Free and Inexpensive Publications on Recreation
and Leisure. This guide is the first attempt to provide in organized
form a list of such recreation publications. The list contains references
on Active Games and Sports, Areas and Facilities, Arts and Crafts,
Drama and Music, Home Recreation, Nature and Outing Activities, and
Social Activities, as well as the names and addresses of the firms
offering the publications.
During the Fourth Annual
Conference of the National Association for Music Therapy, held last
October 19-21, at the Kellogg Center for Continuing Education, Michigan
State College, Mrs. Myrtle Fish Thompson, director of music therapy,
Essex County Overbrook Hospital, Cedar Grove, N. J., was elected President.
Mariana Bing, staff member
of the National American Red Cross, was elected editor. Continuing
as members of the Executive Committee are Drs. Karl A. Menninger,
Ira S. Altshuler, and John M. Anderson.
Newly elected committee
members include the Past-President of the NAMT, E. Thayer Gaston,
chairman, Music Education Department, University of Kansas, and Lenard
Quinto, chief of music, Department of Medicine & Surgery, Veterans
RT in Michigan
The January 11 National
Recreation Association Active Associate Membership Letter announces
that the State of Michigan is seeking a "man or woman, to have
charge of newly organized recreational therapy program in 1600 bed
state hospital." Starting salary is $3,587.52 and applicants
are asked to write the Personnel Officer, Caro State Hospital for
Epileptics, Caro, Mich.
Originally published in
the April 1954 JHPER, v25, issue 4, page 46...
Swimming for the Handicapped
J. Bertram Kessel, AAHPER
consultant in recreation and outdoor education, has distributed to
members of our section, among other materials, An Annotated Bibliography
of Articles on Swimming for the Handicapped, from 1942 through 1951.
This bibliography, prepared by Eleanor L. Wright, containing 12 good
references, can be purchased from AAHPER for ten cents.
Dancing for Mental Patients
Recreation personnel employed
in mental hospitals will want to read "Dancing Helps Patients
Make Initial Contacts," by Marian Chace, director of music and
the dance, St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Wash., D. C. The article appeared
in the February 1954 issue of Mental Hospitals, monthly publication
of the American Psychiatric Association, Mental Hospital Service.
Mary K. Scales, VA Hospital,
Long Beach, Calif., as Institute Chairman, has published a Summary
of the Proceedings of the First Hospital Institute for Hospital Recreation
Therapists, which the Hospital Section of the California Recreation
Society held last fall at the VA Hospital, Long Beach.
The summary is 32 pages
and covers such discussion topics as hospital recreation philosophy,
motivation on a ward level, methods of evaluation, and swap-of-ideas
clinic. It lists more than 60 professional participants from the southern
New York Institute
More than 200 professional
and volunteer hospital recreation leaders from various parts of the
country met in January at New York University in a three-day Hospital
Recreation Institute. Sponsored jointly by the National Recreation
Association and the University School of Education, the Institute
featured leaders in hospital administration, recreation philosophy,
medicine, and education as speakers and panel discussion leaders.
Major topics covered included
"Hospitals as Living Communities," "The Role of Recreation
in Our Modern Hospitals," "How Recreation Meets Our Patients'
Needs," "Professional Leadership in Hospital Recreation,"
"The Role of Recreation for Hospitalized or Institutionalized
Senior Citizens," "Recreation, An Important Member of the
Rehabilitation Team," " The Volunteer in a Hospital Recreation
Program" and "The Hospital Administrators Look at Recreation."
One highlight of the Institute was a demonstration of American folk
dance by hospital patients in wheelchairs.
Originally published in
the May 1954 JHPER, v25, issue 5, page 46...
Standards are Proposed
In January 1954, this column
reported the formation and purpose of the Council for the Advancement
of Hospital Recreation. As its second meeting March 9 at the NEA offices
in Washington, D. C., this Council drew up tentative standards for
personnel employed in recreation for the ill and disabled in a medical
The Council has emphasized
that these standards are tentative and that they are subject to approval
by the three professional groups represented on the Council, namely,
the Hospital Section of the American Recreation Society, the National
Association of Recreational Therapists, and the AAHPER Recreational
The next meeting of the
Council will be in November 1954, at which time it is planned to adopt
officially these standards or modifications thereof, determine whether
or not the Council should provide for the recognition of personnel
meeting these standards and how this can best be done in fairness
to all concerned.
The Council is proposing
two sets of standards for those employed in recreation for the ill
or disabled in a medical setting.
(1) For those entering the profession one of the following would be required:
A. Master's degree from
an accredited college or university with a major in Hospital Recreation,
Recreation in Rehabilitation, or Recreational Therapy; and one year
full-time paid experience in recreation for the handicapped in a medical
setting. (The required clinical experience for the Master's degree
could be substituted for an equal portion of the full-time paid experience.)
B. Master's degree from
an accredited college or university with a major in Recreation; and,
two year's full-time paid experience in recreation for the handicapped
in a medical setting.
C. Master's degree from
an accredited college or university with a major in a professional
field closely allied to Recreation and applicable in recreation for
the handicapped in a medical setting; and, an undergraduate degree
from an accredited college or university with a major in Recreation,
or its equivalent (24 college credits in professional courses in Recreation);
and, two year's full-time paid experience in recreation for the handicapped
in a medical setting.
(2) Those currently employed full-time in the profession would be required to have a combined total
of seven years of academic training in a college or university and
full time paid experience in recreation for the handicapped in a medical
setting providing at least two of the seven years (60 college
credits) represented study (regardless of the field of specialization)
at an accredited college or university, and, at least three
of the seven years represented full-time paid experience in a medical
setting. Provision would be made for the evaluation of the credentials
of those now employed in the field not able to meet either set of
standards but whose outstanding competence and extensive professional
experience should warrant special consideration.
The Council has emphasized
that these standards are to be evaluated intensely before adoption. It has invited all interested individuals, professional groups and
educational institutions to offer constructive suggestions for their
improvement and/or utilization. This should be done either through
the professional group with which the reader is affiliated; or, comments
and suggestions may be relayed to the Council through your editor.
The standards will be discussed
at early meetings of the three professional groups represented on
the Council. Consequently, it is in the reader's interest as well
as in the interest of the profession, for all to participate in this
significant development by affiliating with and attending the meetings
of any or all of these professional groups. In any event, be sure
to inform the Council of your recommendation on this fundamentally
important subject at the earliest possible date.
Paul Haun, M. D., clinical
director, Graylyn Hospital, Winston-Salem, N. C., at last year's National
Recreation Congress in Philadelphia, presented a paper on "Recreation
in the Total Hospital Program." The paper will be published in
the Congress Proceedings. The following quote seems to express much
of Dr. Haun's philosophy:
"There was a time before
Pasteur and Lister when surgeons operated with bare hands and uncleansed
instruments. Post-operative infections were practically universal
and doctors, making a virtue of inevitability, spoke wisely of benign
fevers and laudable pus. Today sterilization of the operative side
is as much a part of surgical routine as the use of a scalpel in making
the initial incision. No one argues that an antiseptic used for this
purpose relieves the patient's symptoms, modifies the surgical pathology
or cures the disease. No more can it be denied that as a direct consequence
of antisepsis patients in countless thousands who would formerly have
died are today restored to health and usefulness. I like to think
of recreation in similar terms as an important means of increasing
the effectiveness of therapy. While not curative in itself, it helps
create the milieu for successful treatment. An apprehensive, a resentful
or a despondent patient is a chancy patient therapeutically. What
is better calculated to allay concern, dissipate animosity or lighten
sadness than friendship, generously offered, in the setting of a shared
Originally published in
the June 1954 JHPER, v25, issue 6, page 42...
New York Convention Meeting
Nearly 100 members attended
the joint meeting of the national and Eastern District Recreational
Therapy Sections, held in New York, April 21, in conjunction with
the AAHPER Convention. The proposed Recreational Therapy (Hospital
Recreation) standards recently developed by the Council for the Advancement
of Hospital Recreation were discussed, elections of officers were
held, the section title was retained in its present form, and your
Editor led a discussion on management improvement through work simplification
in conduct of hospital recreation. Martin W. Meyer, VA Hospital, Montrose,
N. Y., and chairman of the national section, presided at the national
section meeting, Robert Bigley, Ithaca College, N. Y., and recently
appointed chairman of the Eastern District Section, chaired that section's
portion of the meeting. Elizabeth Rosen, Teachers College, Columbia
University, was elected Secretary for the national section for the
current two-year term. Officers-elect for the two sections will be
reported in the fall.
New VA Hospital Recreation
W. Hal Orion, who for five
years headed the Veterans Administration's hospital recreation program,
resigned in May to accept an appointment with the VA's office of veterans
benefits. He was succeeded by C. C. Bream, Jr., who was instrumental
in the planning of the VA's hospital recreation program in late 1945
and who, since then, has been associated intimately with it. Mr. Bream
has been Chairman of the American Recreation Society's Hospital Section
and was Chairman of the ARS committee which published Basic Concepts
of Hospital Recreation.
On April 11 at the 212th
AAA Group Armory in New York City, the Jersey Wheelers defeated the
Brooklyn Whirlaways to win the three-day, eight team, Sixth National
Wheelchair Basketball Tournament. All participants had case histories
and poliomyelitis, paraplegia, and/or amputation. The California and
New England Chapters of the Paralyzed Veterans of America have variously
been credited with initiating wheelchair basketball sometime in 1946.
Bob Rynearson, who since that time has coached the "Flying Wheels"
of California, is usually looked upon as its originator.
In 1948, there were six
teams in the United States, all from VA hospitals.
In April 1949, a group of
students from the University of Illinois, working under the direction
of Tim J. Nugent, supervisor of the student rehabilitation center,
organized the First National Wheelchair Basketball Tournament. Mr.
Nugent reports that there are now some 30 teams in the United States,
several teams in Canada, and that the game is played by the disabled
in approximately 17 countries.
Mr. Nugent reports that
there has never been an injury from participation in basketball under
the auspices of the NWBA. The rules governing wheelchair basketball
will be discussed in a subsequent column.
∑ The library of
the National Society for Crippled Children and Adults has compiled
and distributed revised editions (February 1954) of its Bibliography
on Recreation for Physically Handicapped Children and Adults and
its Bibliography on Camping with Crippled Children. Single
copies may be obtained free from the Society, 11 S. LaSalle St., Chicago
∑ Elizabeth Rosen,
instructor in health and physical education, Teachers College, Columbia
University, has published an article entitled "Dance as Therapy
for the Mentally Ill" in the January 1954 issue of the Teachers
College Record. This article is a report of a recent study at
a small mental hospital.
∑ Approximately 80
persons from 20 states attended the first Annual Convention of
the National Association of Recreational Therapists held March
12-14 at the Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
∑ Eleven different
topics pertaining to recreation for the handicapped were presented
and discussed at the 6th Annual California Recreation Conference held February 14-17 at Santa Rosa.
∑ In the Twentieth
Biennial Report of the Oregon State Board of Control, the Superintendent
of the Eastern Oregon State Hospital reports that the "services
of a male and female recreation director and of a librarian have been
responsible for much improvement in the treatment and rehabilitation
∑ Applications for
Recreational Therapist positions I and II (starting salaries approximately
$312 and $362 per month, respectively) may be filed at any time with
the Bureau of Personnel, State Capital, Madison 2, Wisconsin.
Applications are considered if positions are open within six months
of their receipt.
∑ An unusual opportunity
to demonstrate the contribution the activity therapist can make as
an accepted member of the patient care team is being provided in the Clinical Centers of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,
Md., where one of the most comprehensive medical research programs
ever attempted is forming. The Center plans to utilize the occupational,
recreational, music, and art therapies to discover new ways to aid
physicians in treating patients.
∑ The Eighth Annual
Clinical Conference of the Association for Physical and Mental Rehabilitation is to be held at the Hotel Hollenden, Cleveland, June 28-July 2.
Originally published in
the September 1954 JHPER, v25, issue 7, page 52...
Directory of Organizations
The Personnel Services Division
of the Department of the Air Force published AFM 34 9, a Directory
of National Organizations for Recreation, in May. Describing national
and local services of some 235 organizations providing potentially
valuable assistance to Air Force base recreation programs, this directory
should prove an invaluable source of information for personnel conducting
hospital recreation programs.
Unless there develops a
considerable demand, copies of the directory will not be available
from the Supt. of Documents, Govt. Printing Office, Wash. 25, D. C.
However, copies should be available for perusal at all Air Force bases
and at all VA hospitals and domiciliaries.
At the joint meeting of
the Recreational Therapy Sections of AAHPER and its Eastern District,
held in conjunction with the AAHPER Convention in New York in April,
the following were elected:
for the National section, Chairman-elect--Cecil W. Morgan, director of courses in Rehabilitation,
Springfield College, Mass., and recently named Consultant in Corrective
Therapy for the VA; Secretary elect--George Sanford, Newington
Home and Hospital for Crippled Children, Conn.,;
for the Eastern District
section, Chairman-elect -Frances B. Ewing, Children's Hospital
of Pittsburgh, Pa., and current secretary for the section; Secretary-elect--Barbara
Taylor, Shepard Pratt Hospital, Towson, Md. Current officers of the
two sections were announced in the June 1954 column.
There are many in the field
of hospital recreation today who, for many and varied reasons, find
it impossible to attend professional meetings or to return to school
to improve their professional status. Those facing this common problem
may wish to consider correspondence study as an approach to their
continued in-service training. The Office of the Secretary of the
National University Extension Association, Bloomington, Ind., revised
in February its Guide to Correspondence Study, a bulletin especially
designed for persons desiring information concerning the best sources
of correspondence courses offered in the United States. Courses offered
by NUEA member institutions and fee rates are listed, credit policies
are discussed, and other resource material on correspondence study
is presented. The Guide may be purchased from the NUEA for
Bertha E. Schlotter, institutional
therapy consultant, Illinois Dept. of Public Welfare, reports that
more than 40 supervisors of recreation, occupational therapy,
and industrial therapy in institutions operated by the Department,
held their Fifth Annual Institute at the Illinois Soldiers' and Sailors'
Home in Quincy, in March. Problems of supervision, in-service training,
and program were discussed along with plans for the Tenth Annual Institute
for Illinois recreation, OT, and IT employees, scheduled for
August 25-27, 1954 at the Illinois School for Braille and Sight Saving,
Jacksonville. Approximately 250 workers attend this annual meeting.
New York Workshops
Approximately 65 hospital
recreation personnel from upper New York state met at the Gowanda
State Homeopathic Hospital, May 18 20, and more than 120 hospital
recreation personnel from lower New York State met at Central Islip
State Hospital, May 25-27, to participate in Recreation Workshop Conferences
conducted under the direction of the Supervisor of Recreation, Dept.
of Mental Hygiene, State of New York. These personnel were from the
27 N. Y. State Mental Hospitals which have a patient load exceeding
The Hospital Section
of the American Recreation Society will hold its annual meeting
in conjunction with the 36th National Recreation Congress at the Jefferson
Hotel, St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 25-26. The Congress itself convenes Sept.
27 through Oct. 1.
The National Association
for Music Therapy will hold its 5th Annual Conference at the Henry
Hudson Hotel, New York City, Oct 13-15.
Originally published in
the October 1954 JHPER, v25, issue 8, page 52...
Tim J. Nugent, supervisor,
Student Rehabilitation Center, Univ. of Illinois, and Technical Adviser,
National Wheelchair Basketball Association, reports that the NWBA
has established a standard contract for wheelchair basketball games
(see June column) and has standardized the rules. These rules specify
a chair of the Everest and Jennings Standard University Model style,
limiting the height of the foot platform and seat from the floor to
4 1/2 and 20 inches respectively. They prohibit modification of chairs
which change principal contact points with other chairs. (A new type
of pneumatic wheel which is more serviceable and maneuverable and
which minimizes floor markings is manufactured by the Durst Cycle
Co., Champaign, Ill., under Mr. Nugent's supervision.)
Basically, wheelchair basketball
rules differ from normal basketball rules, as follows: (1) the rear
wheels are on the free-throw line for shooting free-throws; (2) 15
seconds are allowed for advancing the ball from the back to the front
court; (3) there is a six-second time-limit in the free-throw circle;
players may not hold, push, or deliberately bump other player's chairs;
(4) players may not raise their buttocks from their chairs by use
of arms; (5) players in possession of the ball may not make a deliberate
action on the wheels with their hands in any direction more than twice
in succession; (6) the ball must be bounced two or more times on the
floor before the wheels may again be pushed.
Recreation Needs of Orthopedics
Louise B. Shepherd, recreation
leader, Univ. Hospital School, Univ. of Michigan, reports on a memorandum
she received from a resident physician in orthopedic surgery, which
points up well the recreation needs of orthopedic patients. This memorandum
was instrumental in initiating the employment of recreation for teenage
and adult patients in the University Hospital. Excerpts follow:
"For some time, I have
been considering the situation of the orthopedic patients on 4-East
and wonder if your department might not be in a position to be of
help to them.
"Our patients are in
a difficult situation. Many of them are there after acute traumatic
incidents that often kill members of their family or their friends.
They suddenly find themselves in a hospital, frequently securely attached
to their beds, with serious and painful injuries...Aside from the
medical measures that are used for their recovery, they spend most
of the time without activity. "They are...entirely different
from those on any other service in that they are sick and healthy
at the same time...The program is fine but it fails to meet the needs
of those whose life for a long period is spent in bed with the same
walls and floor about them. I feel we are failing to provide adequately
for these patients with the result that their progress is often slowed
and their hospitalization increased as well as their outlook for the
"I am not critical
but just raising a problem that to me is very important...My only
concern is in the welfare of our patients, which too often seem to
Recreation Needs of Polios
Miss Shepherd also sends
in an editorial from the Nov 21, 1953, Wheel Chair Review,
published at the Warm Springs Foundation. The following excerpts from
this editorial show the patients' estimates of their needs for recreation
"The Foundation is
the finest polio treatment and rehabilitation center in the world
"Lucky indeed is the
patient admitted to the Foundation. Not only lucky but bored.
"A patient on a conservative
course has two half-hour treatments a day; a functional patient may
have as many as five or six half-hour treatments daily. He sleeps
eight or nine hours; bathing and dressing takes another hour. There
are, however, 24 hours in a day. This leaves plus or minus 12 hours...
"The new patient has
just come from six months or so in bed doing nothing but reading,
writing letters and watching TV. He doesn't care if he ever sees a
TV set again. He wants to do something with a group of friends...
"So, all right, what
can he do? Two evenings a week he can go to the movies. If he has
a taste for westerns, he can go Saturday afternoon, too. This leaves
five evenings a week, innumerable afternoons, and a long barren week-end,
stretching ahead of the new polio...
"What the new patients
and the old patients need is an Entertainment Therapist. Never
has there been a more crying need for one than here at the Foundation.
All resorts, all cruise ships, all places where people are isolated
usually have an entertainment program and someone to run it...
"In years past the
Foundation has had an Entertainment Therapist. The Administration
is trying to find one now. The Wheel Chair Review hopes they
are trying hard."
Originally published in
the November 1954 JHPER, v25, issue 9, page 52...
Need for Expanding
Our National Recreational
Therapy Section was formed at the April 1952 National Convention of
the AAHPER in Los Angeles. The operating code, adopted at the time,
provided for the formation of corresponding district sections. In
April 1953, the Eastern District formed its Recreational Therapy Section.
Since district sections
will constitute the basic structure upon which our national section
will continue to grow, leaders in the field of hospital recreation
are encouraged to take the initiative in forming Recreational Therapy
Sections in the five remaining district associations. Toward this
end, representatives should be selected at an early date to petition
the presidents of their respective associations for appropriate action.
Your chairman of the national
section, Martin W. Meyer, VA Hospital, Montrose, N. Y. or Jackson
Anderson, AAHPER consultant in recreation and outdoor education,
will be happy to assist such efforts. Plans should be made well ahead
of district conventions which are scheduled in 1955 as follows: Midwest,
Columbus, Ohio, March 30-April 1. Central, St. Paul, Minn.,
March 30-April 2. Southern, Tulsa, Okla., April 11-15. Northwest,
Lewiston, Idaho, April 13-15. Southwest, Las Cruces, N. M.,
In the July 1954 Report
to Governor's Council by Walter Rapaport, director, Department
of Mental Hygiene, State of California, it is reported that the Los
Angeles County Park and Recreation Department, in co operation with
Pacific State Hospital, has established a recreation program for patients
on leave of absence from state mental hospitals. This could be a significant
development and seems to warrant consideration elsewhere.
The September 1954 issue
of the ARS Hospital Recreation Section Newsletter reports that
the Department of Physical Medicine, Graylyn Hospital, Winston-Salem,
N. C., has offered since the summer of 1952, two 12 months internships
in Recreational Therapy. These internships are available to college
graduates with majors in recreation or physical education.
Recreation interns who have
enrolled at the University of Minnesota at least six months prior
to completion of the internship receive nine quarter-hours of graduate
credit toward a Masters degree in hospital recreation.
The information bulletin
describing the graduate program for Physical Education and Recreation
in Rehabilitation at Springfield College, Mass., cites the following
as reasons why such a program is needed:
"Some 28,000,000 persons
in the United States are handicapped in some extent...
"About 5,000,000 children
needing special programs are in the Nation's school system today.
Approximately 2,000,000 have physical handicaps.
now require special certification for teachers of crippled children.
"Only about 15% of those needing special schools and classes
are receiving such help.
"...It is estimated
that in 20 years one third of our population will be over 60 years
of age. Many will require special rehabilitation activities.
"Mental illness has
become the nation's No. 1 health problem. Physical and recreational
activities contribute to prevention and treatment."
Those employed in the field
of hospital recreation, as well as those considering entering the
profession, will profit from reading the article "Professional
Leadership in Hospital Recreation," which appeared in the September
1954 issue of Recreation magazine. This article by Edith Ball,
advisor for the hospital recreation curriculum, School of Education,
New York University, is provocative.
Hospital Recreation Bibliography
An "annotated bibliography
of references concerning hospital recreation" (May 1954) has
been compiled by Sidney Acuff and Elizabeth Denman, graduate students
in hospital recreation at the University of Minnesota. The bibliography
contains 204 references to articles in periodicals, 24 books and published
pamphlets, and 24 unpublished pamphlets and theses.
It is indexed by type of
hospital, diagnostic group, and program area. One of the most complete
bibliographies compiled in our professional area, it has been distributed
to all members of the Hospital Section of the American Recreation
Originally published in
the December 1954 JHPER, v25, issue 10, page 39...
Physicians Discuss Recreation
Nearly 400 registrants from
45 states, the District of Columbia, and all Canadian provinces attended
the Sixth Mental Hospital Institute, held in Minneapolis, Oct.
The institute was sponsored
by the Mental Hospital Service of the American Psychiatric Association,
with the majority of registrants being physicians. For this reason,
it is significant that one plenary session was devoted to the discussion
of Recreation in Mental Hospitals. Robert W. Hyde, asst. supt.,
Boston Psychopathic Hospital, introduced the topic and led the discussion.
It was recognized, among other things, that recreation has a place
in today's mental hospitals; that it is a mechanism through which
the patient may be approached; that spontaneous activity is an excellent
medium for reversing the process of mental illness; that recreation
serves a good purpose in getting patients off wards and, in some instances,
away from hospitals; that the use of patient leaders and volunteers
is essential; that although we may not force participation in recreation,
we may force the opportunity. In summary, another trained group of
"paramedical" personnel has entered the treatment field.
Questions for recreationists:
Although the recreationist
may take comfort in the foregoing observations, his smugness is somewhat
dissipated as he searches for acceptable replies to the following
questions which were posed by the discussion leader:
- How can recreation further a patient's
ability to meet reality?
- Does recreation encourage fantasy?
- Can the patient use recreation as
a method to avoid meeting his problems?
- If recreation is voluntary, will
it only be chosen by the patients who are using it to escape realistic
engagement with their problems?
- If recreation is compulsory is it
- The patients who would benefit most
by recreation are sometimes those with the greatest guilt about
participating in it.
- Will these patients participate
- Is it necessary to achieve a balance
between work and play? If so, how can this be done in separate
- How do patients' recreation needs
compare with those of the average person outside the hospital?
- Do psychotic patients in mental
hospitals tend to have had impoverished recreational lives before
- Is it dangerous for the schizophrenic
patient in turmoil to engage in recreation?
- Is the manic patient overstimulated
by most recreation?
- Does recreation increase the guilt
and self-destructive urges of the depressed patient?
- What scientific evidence has been
presented that recreation is therapeutic in mental illness?
- Is there a series of case studies
anywhere available which demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy
- What physiological changes occur
in patients with different types of mental illness as a result
- Is the parasympathetic system particularly
mobilized by recreation?
- In hospitals with an organized patient
government, should recreational choice and management be placed
in their hands, with personnel assistance where they request it?
- What responsibility should the ward
attendant have for carrying on recreational therapy with patients?
- What "follow through"
is indicated when a patient shows a decided improvement during
a social event?
- Should recreation be organized on
a ward basis, in order to further the socialization of the ward?
- Can recreation which fails to take
into account the natural grouping of patients be disruptive in
- What is the relative value of group
as contrasted with individual recreation?
- Does it vary according to type of
illness? Is reading recreation?
- To whom shall we look for the
answers to these basic question?
in Hospital Recreation
The University of Minnesota,
Physical Education Department, Division of Recreation Leadership,
in co-operation with the Correspondence Study Department, has announced
a new correspondence course entitled Orientation to Recreation
in Hospitals. Lessons are planned in four major divisions: The
Place of Recreation in Hospitals; Adapted Activities for Patients;
The Hospital Recreation Program; and Leadership, Supervision, and
The course is conducted
by Professor Fred M. Chapman, has 16 lesson assignments, and carries
three quarter credits. Tuition is $15, plus a materials fee of $1.25.
Basic texts cost approximately $4.00. For additional information,
write F. Lloyd Hansen, Director,
Department, 251 Nicholson Hall, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis